The blue-and-white porcelain of the Ming Dynasty, the official kiln products are refined, and the late folk kiln is characterized by a large amount of products. In addition to the continued firing of the kiln in the Yuan Dynasty, many new kiln fields have been raised in the Ming Dynasty. The famous folk kiln fields are: Yaoli, Hutian, Guanyin Pavilion, Shidudu, Dongjiawu and so on. With its unique advantages, blue and white porcelain is the leader in the porcelain production in the Ming Dynasty. Here, we mainly look at the objects that are unearthed from the tombs of the exact stratum and the tombs of the year.
Ming Hongwu Dynasty: There are three discoveries identified as artifacts unearthed in the Hongwu strata. The first is a batch of fragments unearthed in Nanjing Ming Palace in 1964; the second is a batch of fragments unearthed in Beijing 1984 in the summer of 1984, and the third is a batch of fragments unearthed from Jingdezhen Royal Kiln Factory; Incomplete, but can be used as a typical device to compare the complete handed down products.
In addition, the Shanghai Museum's "Spring Shou" Yunlong Plum Bottle and the Blue and White Yunlong Jade Spring Bottle collected by the Henan Museum are complete and typical. The blue and white of Ming Hongwu Dynasty is obviously less than that of glaze red, and there are fewer complete devices. However, from the comparative analysis of a large amount of data, the blue and white glaze and the glaze red are the same.
This direction mainly uses domestically produced materials with different purity of panning, but it does not rule out that there are a few cases where the remaining imported materials of the Yuan Dynasty are used. During this period, the green materials are roughly divided into three categories: one is a fresh and bright light blue, the color is stable, not dizzy, the texture can also show the level of blue and white; the second type of blue and white hair is light and light, rare Halo, the pattern often has obvious dark spots scattered randomly in it, like a starry dense; the third type of blue and white color is gray, the glazed surface is grayish white. Because the coloring material contains high manganese and manganese impurities, the plaque has a large plaque-like black cyan color, and some of them are deep into the fetal bone, which is uneven. The variety is mainly white and blue.
The layout follows the multi-layered decorative belt of the Yuan Dynasty and is suitable for the pattern. Common themes and characteristics are as follows: the main body is decorated with a variety of flowers and dragons. The floral pattern is entangled with floral patterns such as peony, daisy, camellia, lotus, peony, chrysanthemum, rose flowers and other assorted flowers. It is mostly used for the inner and outer abdominal walls of dishes and bowls. Assorted flowers, banana gardens, and saplings inserted on the rocks are often used on the outer walls of larger vessels and the bottom of the market.
Dragon pattern: The dragon's body is slender, the typical Ming and Qing dynasty dragon kiln, the dragon pattern basically maintains the Yuan Dynasty style, but changed the fierce and fierce feeling of the Yuan Dynasty dragon pattern, mostly wheel-shaped five-claw, also has three claws, The four-claw, the claw and the claw are divided more open, the pig-shaped mouth, for the mouth to stretch the tongue. Auxiliary ceramics are decorated with various types such as lotus petals, grasses, creases, Italian clouds, banana leaves, tangled Ganoderma lucidum, and seagulls. The glyph cloud is a typical pattern of Ming Hongwu porcelain, and it is depicted on many varieties.
Fetal glaze: The carcass is white and the porcelain is dense, but it is thick and loose compared with the Yongle official kiln. There are pinholes or fine cracks in the carcass. Porcelain mud has good plasticity, and the utensils rarely have the disadvantages of bottom collapse and flattening. The glazed surface is plump, the white is pan-green, and there are glazes along the mouth of the rounds, forming a circle of obvious natural thick lips. Some of the glaze layers are thicker, and the fine glaze bubbles are densely packed, giving a warm and soft feeling. Especially the light blue garnish, under this fat glaze, is more elegant and elegant.
The shape of the Ming Hongwu Dynasty blue-and-white porcelain is mainly composed of bowls, plates, linghuakou mouths, pots, jade pot spring bottles, pomegranate-shaped melons and other large cans. Two types of pier bowls with a diameter of about 20 cm and about 40 cm are most common. They are divided into straight lips and mouths, deep arc abdomen, flat feet and glazed bottom. Plates of about 20 cm and 45 cm are most common. Divided into two types of flower mouth and round mouth.
The shape of the rhomboid mouth plate is a wide fold, and the shallow arc abdomen is a guillotular rib, and the foot is flat. The three blue-grained discs of the blue and white unearthed in the Ming Dynasty Palace of Nanjing Yudai River have no mouth, but combined with the complete blush and indigo glaze of the same pattern hidden in the British Museum, it is a shallow abdomen, a large circle, and a foot inside and outside. It is sloped, the inner slant is even worse, the foot end is flat, and the sand bottom sees a large kiln red.
The diameter of the rhododendron is about 20 cm. The wide fold is along the rhomboid mouth, the square lip, the shallow arc wall, and the petal rib. The inner core is raised with a circle of ribs for placing the cup, the shallow circle and the bottom without glaze, see the flint red. In the Hongwu period, there were two consecutive continuous lines on the outside of the square lip. Pots: The most common heights of 30 cm and 20 cm. The shape is a small straight mouth, a long neck, a sloping shoulder and a round belly. The abdomen has a long and curved flow, and the mouth of the mouth and the neck of the pot are connected with a cloud-shaped flat wide belt. The neck and the abdomen are connected by a curved plate-like rib handle. There is a small round hole at the upper end of the handle, and the lid is a pagoda-shaped bead button, which is inserted.
Jade pot spring bottle, there are two sizes, the larger one is 30 cm high. Rinse mouth, long neck, slippery shoulders, circle foot, bottom glaze. This large can of pomegranate-shaped melons is a typical shape of the Hongwu period. It has different sizes and specifications. The height is about 60 cm or more, usually about 50 cm. Mouthwash, short neck and shoulders, long abdomen, 12 cucurbits, bundles, feet, sand bottom, flint red.
Plum bottle: small mouth round lip, short neck, slightly upper and lower small shape, abundance shoulder, lower abdomen constriction, ankle iliac crest, ring foot, flat cut, outer oblique cutting, sand bottom, center bulge, see local Flint red. The knowledge and craftsmanship: the money is only found in the shoulder of the plum bottle and the word "chunshou" is written in the script. In terms of technology, the inner wall of the vessel saw obvious joints, and the bottom of the utensils saw obvious flint red, commonly known as the "cinnabar" bottom.
It can be seen that the peony flowers, flat chrysanthemums, clouds and other decorative patterns in the blue-and-white porcelain of Ming Hongwu are left with white edges. The leaves of the stalked peony and the daisy-grain are large and the banana leaves are double stems, leaving a blank in the middle; the stamens are fine squares of flat chrysanthemums. The pattern is continuous and positive. The bottom is flat and has a kiln red.
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